The Basics of Law


Law is a set of rules that are enforceable by social institutions. Law is an important component of politics and economics. Law is also the basis for a person’s rights.

The legal system in the United States is divided into three categories: common law, civil law, and administrative law. Common law systems, such as the common law of England, are based on decisions of courts. Civil law legal systems are less detailed. While they also require judicial decisions, they are based on more standardized procedures.

Legal issues can arise from a variety of situations. Some of the most common legal issues include immigration, property, debt, and family law. These issues can also be complicated, and may require a lawyer.

In the United States, law is enforced by the government. Laws can be made by the legislature, or by the executive branch through decrees and deeds.

In criminal cases, the prosecutor will try the case on behalf of the government. During a trial, the defendant is asked to plead guilty or not guilty. If he or she is found guilty, the defendant is sent to prison. A plea deal, on the other hand, is a bargain between the prosecutor and the defendant. It may include a recommendation to the jury that the charge be dropped, or that the charges be reduced.

In criminal cases, evidence is presented orally to the court or grand jury. This can include testimony, documents, and photographs. Evidence that shows the defendant’s innocence is called exculpatory evidence, while evidence that shows the defendant’s guilt is called inculpatory.

Courts have the authority to decide lawsuits. They can use Supreme Court decisions or a judgment from a lower court in the case. An appeal may be filed if a trial court’s judgment is unfavorable. Appeals are usually heard by the district courts or by the courts of appeals.

A court clerk is responsible for maintaining court records and overseeing the flow of cases through the court. Librarians assist judges with research and information. Many of the records in a courtroom are kept on a docket. The docket contains brief entries of court proceedings.

An arraignment is the process of bringing an accused person to a courtroom. Once the police and the prosecutor have presented their case, the accused must appear in court to answer questions. After an arraignment, the court can issue a temporary restraining order to stop the defendant from violating the law. Upon receiving a restraining order, the defendant is prohibited from committing an act that might cause irreparable harm to the plaintiff.

If a criminal defendant is found not guilty, he or she is given the option of probation, which is a sentencing alternative. Probation is supervised by a probation officer. If a convicted offender is released from prison, a probation officer will continue to monitor his or her activities.

The law also affects the economy, including banking law, tax law, and regulation. Regulation includes laws pertaining to the provision of utilities and public services, such as water and gas.